Volume 9, No 1, June 1996
Internationalisation and SME Strategies in Small Southern European States
The State and Enterprise in the Cypriot Clothing Industry under Conditions of Globalisation
This article argues that the development of the Cypriot clothing industry cannot be understood without reference to the promotional activities of the state. At the same time, globalization by weakening the power of national economies subjects nation-states and enterprises to a highly competitive environment. These issues are explored in a theoretical, empirical and ethnographic manner. The argument focuses upon the sectoral experience of entrepreneurs in the garment sector impacted by an export-market instability associated with a crisis in Libya, which, at the time, was the largest importer of Cypriot garments. This placed a question mark over one of the foundation stones of the Cyprus 'economic miracle.'
Subcontracting in the Greek Garment Industry and the Opening of the Balkan Markets
The paper focuses upon the vulnerability of countries dependent upon international capacity subcontracting. The general argument is advanced through a consideration of recent developments in the Greek garment industry in general and the threats as well as opportunities created recently by the opening of the Balkans. Over the last fifteen years the industry has encountered several grave problems relating to its competitive position. Because a movement up-market is hard to achieve, an increasing number of firms have attempted to respond to international pressures by reducing labor costs. Since 1990 transferring operations to the Balkans has become an attractive option. However, this causes unemployment and, in the long-run, might lead to postponement of a much needed restructuring process.
Southern Europe in a Changing International Division of Labour: Labour and Enterprise in the Garment Industry of Northern Greece
From the mid-1970s several distinct rural areas in Southern Europe have experienced rapid growth and structural transformation. The major form of industrial organization which emerged consisted of small and medium-scale firms which, in large measure were family owned and run. Within the context of the Greek mainland we set out to explore the nature of the labor regime which lies at the heart of recent expansion. The argument is that medium-scale primary sub-contractors introduced novel practices of employment in the locality, while their household and medium-scale counterparts have based their enterprise strategy upon redefining their links with transitional institutions, especially the family-oriented domestic domain.
Internationalisation, European Integration and the Portuguese Economy: The Case of the Food Manufacturing Sector
The process of European integration has played a key role in contributing to the increased internationalization of the Portuguese economy. However, discussion of the consequences of Portugal's increased integration into the European economy often fails to identify the differentiated nature of the impact upon various types of capital, sectors and regions, and their related policy frameworks. Through analysis of recent changes in the Portuguese food manufacturing sector, this paper explores how these different dimensions are currently interacting with processes of European integration to produce varied outcomes. In particular, the paper focuses upon the impact of the Single European Market (SEM) on Portuguese small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). Drawing upon survey results, the impact of the SEM upon SMEs operating in the food manufacturing sector are identified and their implications for policy development considered.