GIS analyses 
 
Spatial analyses through the employment of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) constitutes a powerful tool in archaeological landscape and intra-site research and in cultural heritage management. GIS analyses provide a wide perspective on human settlements and landscapes nearby. Allowing the integration of data from a variety of sources from topographical maps and aerial/satellite imagery to environmental and socio-economical models, it facilitates the reconstruction and visualization of the ancient settlement patterns. GIS analysis improves the archaeological methodology when used in tandem to material evidence recovered from trench excavations and fieldwork surveys
                          2              Harta ok
 
 
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          STFM
 
Terrestrial and Aerial photogrammetry
 
Photogrammetry is used to create 3D models through overlapping 2D photographs. It can be used to create 3D reconstructions of monuments or DEMs of the landscape. Photogrammetry is mostly used by archaeologists to:
• Evaluate and measuring the artifacts by creating high-resolution three-dimensional models.
• Create digital elevation models and orthophoto maps.
• Perform morphometrical measurements of the archaeological sites.
• Contribute to Real-time excavation documentation.
• Construct photogrammetric models for conservation and preservation of buildings and artifacts.
• Create models for online museum virtual exhibitions.
 

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR)

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is used to create high-resolution DEMs with a vertical accuracy of up to a few centimeters. LIDAR equipment is usually installed on an unmanned aerial vehicle or on large aircraft as airplanes or helicopters. The laser scanner transmits short laser pulses to the ground surface. By detecting returning pulses, the receiver records the time it takes for the transmitted light beam to reach the ground and return to the source. The distance between the transmitter and the ground is calculated based on the speed of light. With this technology, three-dimensional models of the terrain are obtained even in areas with abundant vegetation (for example for archaeological sites located in forested areas).

   LIDAR