An A.G. Leventis Funded University of Cyprus Research Project

From the metalliferous sources to the citadel complex of Ancient Paphos:

archaeo-environmental analysis of the mining and the built environment (2017-2019)

 
  • Internal  collaborator  -  UCY  colleague  (1): Prof.  Vasiliki  Kassianidou,  Director  of  the Archaeological Research Unit
  • External collaborator (1): Dr. Takis Karkanas, Director the Wiener Laboratory, ASCSA, Athens.
  • Postdoctoral Research Assistants (3): Athos Agapiou, Artemis Georgiou, Stella Diakou.
  • Special  Scientists  (8):  M.  Gouma,  M.  Lorentzon,  A.  Marangou,  C.  McNamee,  M. Ntinou, A. Sarpaki, M. Socratous, G. Tsartsidou.
  • The project’s kick-off meeting between Takis Karkanas, Vasiliki Kassianidou and Maria Iacovou, took place in the Archaeological Research Unit on May 26th 2017.

Summary of the Research Project

Major methodological advances in the archaeology of Cyprus over recent years have rendered it a prominent field of research concerning Mediterranean island cultures. State-of-the-art archaeo-environmental projects have been successfully carried out on Prehistoric and Bronze Age sites enhancing our understanding of the island’s socio- economic structure to the end of the second millennium BC. The same, however, cannot  be  said  of the  first  millennium  BC. Few  field  projects  of  this  period have focused on the collection and treatment of archaeo-environmental data that can provide  evidence  on  the  political  economy  and  the  administrative  system  of  the Cypriot ‘kingdoms’. 

A rare opportunity to explore the resource exploitation strategies and the networking pattern of one of the Iron Age polities is now provided by the unexpected discovery in 2014-2015 of an industrial and storage complex by the Palaepaphos Urban Landscape Project (PULP), which has been carrying out intensive landscape analysis, in combination with short-term targeted excavations, since 2006. Constructed circa the end of the sixth century BC, this monumental complex extends over 65m next to a poorly known edifice, identified since the 1950s as a royal residence. Both are situated on the north side of the citadel of Hadjiabdoullah, the easternmost plateau within the urban landscape of Ancient Paphos.

FIG.2

Instead of proceeding at fast pace to expose this impressive complex, whose stone- built units are preserved to a height of 1.50-1.80m, we have (as of 2016) redefined the priorities of the excavation schedule so that they may comply with the requirements of a holistic archaeo-environmental project and the need to document and maintain a fine scale record of the depositional history of each unit. Besides ensuring the proper collection of organic  and inorganic  materials,  especially  from  below  the collapsed roofs that have sealed most of the units, industrial and other residues from production areas and storerooms will also be analysed with particular reference to the metal and timber resources of the Paphos hinterland. PULP’s continuing survey of slag heaps in the long abandoned metalliferous area of Paphos on the southwestern fringe of the Troodos forest has allowed us to argue that copper procurement and, most likely, also shipbuilding (if epigraphical and literary sources are taken into consideration), may have been the main industries of the polis-state of Paphos. This model can now be tested through a collaborative project that will bring together a group of specialists (with access to laboratory facilities), all of whom have pledged their commitment to the project.

The political economy of the city-state of Paphos, one of Cyprus’s ancient polities

For the first time since the development of the archaeo-sciences and their (still erratic) application to  the  archaeology  of  Cyprus  (primarily,  in the  context  of  prehistoric  and Bronze Age projects), the unexpected discovery of an extensive and extremely well preserved citadel complex, with purpose-built industrial production and storage units, provides a singular opportunity for the study of the economic system of one of the Cypriot polities: the city-state (‘kingdom’) of Paphos during the late Archaic and Classical periods. To this day, we rely on assumptions, largely based on the epigraphical and numismatic record of Paphos, in order to interpret how this polity was able to function as an autonomous territorial state to the end of the fourth century BC. Today, and for the first time, we can begin to construct an economic model based on real data: we have before us substantial, contextually pristine and economically significant material remains, which if properly collected and analysed by experienced archaeo-scientists in laboratories that have the required facilities, will provide trustworthy scientific evidence regarding the unto now unidentified aspects of the political economy of this one Cypriot city-state.

Situated on the Hadjiabdoulla plateau, close to one km to the east of the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Koukia-Palaepaphos, the monumental complex, which occupies the north side and slope of the citadel terrace, was erected towards the very end of the sixth century BC. Together with Laona, the site of a man-made tumulus lying less than 80m to the north, the Hadjiabdoulla complex was first identified in the course of the landscape analysis project  (PULP)  we  have  been  carrying  out  in  the  area  since  2006.  Both  sites  have undergone sufficient field investigation (Hadjiabdoulla 2009-2016; Laona: 2012-2016) that has determined their original character as well as the duration of their use: the Hadjiabdoulla complex was gradually abandoned before the late Ptolemaic/Hellenistic period (late 2nd  c. BC); the Laona tumulus was apparently erected in the 3rd  c. BC, partly over a Cypro-Classical rampart.

 

 

1. The Hadjiabdoulla complex on the North side of the plateau 2. The mound of Laona, view from the North 4. The Laona tumulus, ground plan 
 
 
FIG.3 ground plan FIG.4b FIG.6
     
FIG.7 FIG.8 FIG.10
 
FIG.11
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zomenia Zomeni
Senior Geological Officer
Geological Survey Department, Cyprus
Geologist Zomenia Zomeni
Athos Agapiou
Researcher
Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics
Cyprus University of Technology
 
Cartography and GIS Athos Agapiou
     
Priscilla Keswani 
Pottery specialist
(Study of LBA Storage Vessels)
Priscilla Keswani
Eleni Nodarou
Head of the W.A. MacDonald
laboratory of petrography
INSTAP Study Center for East Crete
 
Petrographer Eleni Nodarou
Lecturer in the Art History and Archaeology
of the Hellenistic and Roman world
Université de Rennes II
 
Pottery Specialist
(Study of Transport Amphorae)
Antigoni Marangou
Anaya Sarpaki
Archaeologist-Archaeobotanist
 
Archaeobotanist Anaya Sarpaki
Maria Ntinou
Archaeobotanist
M.H. Wiener Laboratory
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
 
Archaeobotanist Maria Ntinou
Marta Lorenzon 
PhD candidate
University of Edinburgh
 
Mudbricks analysis Marta Lorenzon
Myrsini Gkouma
Geoarchaeologist
PhD candidate
Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
 
Site Geomorphology and Soil Micromorphology Myrsini Gkouma
Apostolos Sarris
Research Director
Laboratory of Geophysical-Satellite
Remote Sensing & Archaeo-environment
FORTH/IMS, Rethymno, Crete, Greece
 
Geophysical Surveys (2002-2003, 2007, 2010) Apostolos Sarris
Vassilis Trigkas
Open Cartography

3D Model Specialist Vassilis Trigkas
Susan Sherratt
Lecturer
Department of Archaeology
University of Sheffield
 
Pottery specialist
(Study of LBA finds from Marcello)
Susan Sherratt
Sabine Fourrier
Researcher
Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée
Université de Lyon
 
Pottery specialist
(Study of Iron Age finds from Hadjiabdullah [seasons 2009-2010])
Sabine Fourrier
Anna Georgiadou
Archaeological Research Unit
University of Cyprus
 
Pottery specialist
(Iron Age pottery)
Draughtsperson
Anna Georgiadou
Ariane Jacobs
Doctoral student
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
 
Pottery specialist
(LBA Plain wares)
Ariane Jacobs
Paraskevi Tritsaroli
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, Alumna
 
Osteoarchaeologist 2
Georgia Tsartsidou
Ephoreia of palaeoanthropology-Speleology SG, Athens Greece
 
 
 Phytolith and starch analyses  1
Dimitra Mylona
Faunal Specialist at the INSTAP Study Center for East Crete
Zooarchaeologist
dimitra.mylona
 Takis Karkanas
Director of the M. H. Wiener Laboratory of Archaeological Science,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
 Geoarchaeologist  
Takis Karkanas
 
Lectures and Conference presentations

 

  • "Ερευνώντας την αρχαία Πάφο κατά την Ύστερη Εποχή του Χαλκού: Τα πηγάδια της Ευρετής, 50 χρόνια μετά την ανασκαφή τους (Exploring ancient Paphos during the Late Bronze Age: The Evreti Wells, 50 years after their excavation", presented at Το αρχαιολογικό έργο του Πανεπιστημίου Κύπρου, 2016 (Τhe Archaeological work of the University of Cyprus, 2016), Archaeological Research Unit, Nicosia, 11 February 2017.
  • "Ταφικές πρακτικές και λατρευτικές δοξασίες όπως φαίνονται από τα αρχαιολογικά κατάλοιπα της ευρύτερης περιοχής Λεμεσού κατά την Ύστερη Εποχή του Χαλκού (Burial customs and religious practices as can be seen by the archaeological remains of the wider area of Limassol during the Late Bronze Age), invited speaker at Η Λεμεσός στα βάθη των αιώνων (Limassol at the depth of time). First scientific conference organized by the Limassol Metropole, Limassol, 04 November 2016.
  • "'Unclassified ceramic horrors': Elucidating the transformed ceramic industry of Cyprus during the 13th-to-12th century BC transition", presented at the Prehistoric and Early Greece Seminar, University of Oxford, Oxford, 23 February 2016.
  • "Technological changes in periods of transformation: Re-examining the Late Cypriot ceramic industry during the 13th to 12th century BC transition. A case-study at Maa-Palaeokastro and the Paphos region", invited speaker at Technology in Crisis. Technological changes in ceramic production during periods of trouble. An International workshop organised by "ARC: A World in Crisis?" and Aegis (UCL-INCAL-CEMA), Universite Catholoque du Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, 18-19 February 2016.
  • "Αποσαφηνίζοντας την αρχαία Πάφο στην Εποχή του Χαλκού: Πορίσματα των ερευνών του ευρωπαϊκού προγράμματος 'ARIEL' (2013-2017) (Elucidating ancient Paphos during the Bronze Age: Preliminary results of the European-funded programme 'ARIEL' (2013-2017)", presented at Το αρχαιολογικό έργο του Πανεπιστημίου Κύπρου (Τhe Archaeological work of the University of Cyprus), Archaeological Research Unit, Nicosia, 13 February 2016.
  • "Characterizing and Delineating the Idiosyncratic Ceramic Industry of Finewares in Southwestern Cyprus during the Late Bronze Age", presented at Ceramic Identities and Affinities of the Paphos Region in the Bronze Age (3rd and 2nd millennium BC). An International Workshop organized within the framework of Marie Sklodowska Curie "ARIEL", Archaeological Research Unit, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 19 September 2015.
  • "Defining Late Bronze Age Cooking Pot Identifies in the Region of Paphos. The Case Studies of Maa-Palaeokastro and Palaepaphos-Evreti", presented at Ceramic Identities and Affinities of the Paphos Region in the Bronze Age (3rd and 2nd millennium BC). An International Workshop organized within the framework of Marie Sklodowska Curie "ARIEL", Archaeological Research Unit, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 19 September 2015. (with Maria Dikomitou-Eliadou and Athanasios Vionis)
  • "Revisiting the 'time capsules': an examination of the short-lived settlements at Pyla-Kokkinokremos and Maa-Palaeokastro in Cyprus", invited speaker at A World in Crisis Lecture Series, ARC Academie de Louvain, Leuven, 08 May 2015.
  • "Cyprus from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age: transformations of the funerary practices and changes in the mortuary landscape", invited speaker at the international conference Cypriot kingdoms and their historical challenges. Transitions and breaks from the end of the Bronze Age to the beginning of the Hellenistic period, Athens, École française d'Athènes, 19–21 March 2015.
  • "Υστερο-κυπριακοί πίθοι με εμπίεστες σφραγιστικές παραστάσεις: αναλύοντας ιδιαίτερες αποθηκευτικές πρακτικές της Ύστερης Εποχής του Χαλκού στην Κύπρο (Late Cypriot pithoi with impressed cylinder-seal friezes: analyzing the storage practices of Cyprus during the Late Bronze Age)", invited speaker at the 2015 Spring Semester Seminar Series, Archaeological Research Unit, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 09 February 2015.
  • "Cooking pot fabric recipes: an interdisciplinary study of Cypriot cooking pots of the Late Bronze Age", presented at The International NARNIA Conference: Interdisciplinary Studies of Ancient Materials from the Mediterranean, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 17–19 September 2014 (with Maria Dikomitou-Eliadou and Athanasios Vionis).
  • "Palaepaphos: The Late Bronze Age", presented at The 33rd Annual CAARI Archaeological Workshop in Collaboration with the Department of Antiquities and the Archaeological Research Unit of the University of Cyprus. Nicosia, University of Cyprus, 18th June 2014 (with Maria Iacovou).
  • "Συμβολή των Γεωγραφικών Συστημάτων Πληροφοριών στην εξερεύνηση του βασιλείου της Αρχαίας Πάφου (The Contribution of Geographical Information Systems to the investigation of the kingdom of Ancient Paphos)", presented at Εφαρμογές Γεωγραφικών Συστημάτων Πληροφοριών στην Κύπρο (Application of GIS in Cyprus) Διημερίδα Συνδέσμου Τοπογράφων Μηχανικών Κύπρου. Nicosia, 8–9 October 2014 (with Athos Agapiou and Maria Iacovou).
  • "Η Κύπρος στα χρόνια της Μεσογειακής Κρίσης: Οι κυπριακές πολιτείες κατά τη μετάβαση από τον 13ο στο 12ο αιώνα π.Χ." invited speaker at University of Aegean, Rhodes Lecture Series-Ancient Cyprus, Rhodes, 03rd December 2014.
  • "Cyprus during the Crisis Years of the 12th century BC: Examining the case of the Paphos region", invited speaker at the Sea Peoples Up to Date. New Research on the Migration of Peoples in the 12th century BCE, Vienna, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 3–4 November 2014.
  • "Tracing the Foundation horizon of Palaepaphos: New Research on the Paphos region" invited speaker at New Directions in Cypriot Archaeology, Cornell Univeristy, Ithaca NY, 11th April 2014.
  • "Archaeological Research at Palaepaphos", presented at the Archaeological Research Unit Workshop for the American School of Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Unit, 19th March 2014.
  • "Made to impress: Late Cypriot cylinder-seal reliefs on pithoi and their economic, social and political associations" invited speaker at Prehistoric and Early Greece Seminar, University of Oxford, Oxford, 5th March 2013.
 
 
Publications   
  • Georgiou, A. (2014). "The 'Canaanite Jars'" in V. Karageorghis and A. Kanta (eds), Pyla-Kokkinokremos. A late 13th century fortified settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 2010–2011, Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology (SIMA) CXLI, Uppsala: Åströms förlag, 175–187.
  • Karageorghis, V. and Georgiou, A. (2014). "Inventory of objects, diagnostics sherds and sherd trays" in V. Karageorghis and A. Kanta (eds), Pyla-Kokkinokremos. A late 13th century fortified settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 2010–2011, Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology (SIMA) CXLI, Uppsala: Åströms förlag, 123–140.
  • Karageorghis, V. and Georgiou, A. (2014). "Commentary on the objects" in V. Karageorghis and A. Kanta (eds), Pyla-Kokkinokremos. A late 13th century fortified settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 2010–2011, Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology (SIMA) CXLI, Uppsala: Åströms förlag, 141–153.
  • Georgiou, A. (2015). "Cyprus during the 'Crisis Years' revisited" in A. Babbi, F. Bubenheimer-Erhart, B. Marin-Aguilera and S. Mühl (eds), The Mediterranean Mirror: Cultural Contacts in the Mediterranean Sea between 1200 and 750 B.C. Mainz: Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums (RGZM) Tagungen 20, 129–145.
  • Georgiou, A. (2015). "Palaepaphos during the Late Bronze Age: Characterizing the urban landscape of a Late Bronze Age polity" in Z. Theodoropoulou-Polychroniades and D. Evely (eds.), Aegis: Essays in Mediterranean Archaeology Presented to Matti Egon, BAR Archaeological Series, Archaeopress, Oxford.
  • Georgiou, A. (2015). "The history of research at Kouklia (Palaepaphos)" in E. Markou (ed.) Kyprios Character: History, Archaeology and Numismatics of Ancient Cyprus. Online resource http://kyprioscharacter.eie.gr/
  • Dikomitou-Eliadou, M., Georgiou, A. and Vionis, A. (2016). "Cooking fabric recipes: An interdisciplinary study of Cypriot cooking pots of the Late Bronze Age" in Journal of Archaeological Science Reports.
  • Von Rüden, C., Georgiou, A., Jacobs, A. and Halstead, P. (2016). Feasting, Craft and Depositional Practice in Late Bronze Age Palaepaphos. The Well Fillings of Evreti, Rahden: Bochumer Forschungen zur Ur- und Frühgeschichtlichen Archäologie.
  • Georgiou, A. (2016). "The White Painted Wheelmade III ware from the Evreti Wells, Palaepaphos" in C. von Rüden (ed.), Feasting and Depositional Practices in Late Bronze Age Palaepaphos, Cyprus: The Evreti Wells TE III and TE VIII, Bochumer Forschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie.
  • Georgiou, A. (2016). "The Imported Late Helladic and Late Minoan vessels from the Evreti Wells, Palaepaphos" in C. von Rüden (ed.), Feasting and Depositional Practices in Late Bronze Age Palaepaphos, Cyprus: The Evreti Wells TE III and TE VIII, Bochumer Forschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie.
  • Georgiou, A. (2016). "The Teratsoudhia ware from the Evreti Wells, Palaepaphos" in C. von Rüden (ed.), Feasting and Depositional Practices in Late Bronze Age Palaepaphos, Cyprus: The Evreti Wells TE III and TE VIII, Bochumer Forschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie.
  • Dikomitou-Eliadou, M., Georgiou, A. and Vionis, A. (2016). "The petrographic analyses of cooking pot samples from Evreti" in C. von Rüden (ed.), Feasting and Depositional Practices in Late Bronze Age Palaepaphos, Cyprus: The Evreti Wells TE III and TE VIII, Bochumer Forschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie.
  • Georgiou, A. (Forthcoming). "Tracing the foundation horizon of Palaepaphos. New research on the early history of the Paphos region" in S.W. Manning and C.M. Kearns (eds), New Directions in Cypriot Archaeology.
  • Georgiou, A. (Forthcoming). "Ceramic fluidity and regional variations: Elucidating the transformed ceramic industry of Cyprus at the close of the Late Bronze Age" in A. Cannavo and L. Thely (eds), Les royaumes de Chypre à l'épreuve del'histoire. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellenique-Supplementary volume.
  • Georgiou, A. (Forthcoming). "Flourishing amidst a "Crisis": the regional history of the Paphos polity during the transition from the 13th to the 12th centuries BCE" in P.M. Fischer (ed.) The Sea Peoples Up to Date. New Research on the Migration of Peoples in the 12th century BCE, Contributions to the Chronology of the Eastern Mediterranean (CChEM).
  • Georgiou, A. (Forthcoming) "From the hand to the wheel: Revisiting the transformations of the Late Cypriot industry of ceramic finewares during the 13th-to-12th century BC transition" in I. Caloi and C. Langohr (eds), Technology in Crisis. Technological changes in ceramic production during periods of trouble, Louvain-la-Neuve: Aegis Presses Universitaires de Louvain.

 

     
 

 
 International workshop organized within the framework of ARIEL

CERAMIC IDENTITIES AND AFFINITIES OF THE REGION OF PAPHOS DURING THE BRONZE AGE
(3rd and 2nd millennia BC)

Archaeological Research Unit, University of Cyprus
Saturday, 19 September 2015

The research programme ARIEL (Archaeological Investigations of the Extra-Urban and Urban Landscape in eastern Mediterranean centres: a case-study at Palaepaphos) organized an international workshop, entitled "Ceramic identities and affinities of the region of Paphos during the Bronze Age (3rd and 2nd millennia BC)" held at the Archaeological Research Unit Lecture Room on Saturday, the 19th of September 2015.

The workshop elucidates the idiosyncratic pottery production of the region of Paphos during the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC in terms of fineware, storage, transport and cooking vessels. The workshop also seeks to define the affinities of the Paphian ceramic industry in relation to the production of neighbouring regions and more distant areas of the island. The ARIEL workshop hosts leading scholars and young researchers in the field of Cypriot archaeology. The participants present original material and innovative, inter-disciplinary research approaches to ceramic studies.

 
Programme List of abstracts
Pages from ARIEL workshop-Programme and List of abstracts Pages from ARIEL workshop List of abstracts
 
2011-01-01 00.00.00-280
 
 2011-01-01 00.00.00-276  2011-01-01 00.00.00-274
2011-01-01 00.00.00-288 2011-01-01 00.00.00-285
 

 
 
 
 
 
 

ARIEL    The research programme "Archaeological Investigations of the Extra-Urban and Urban Landscape in Eastern Mediterranean centres: A case-study at Palaepaphos, Cyprus", known by the acronym ARIEL, is a four-year (2013-2017) Marie Sklodowska Curie Career Integration Grant, hosted at the Archaeological Research Unit (ARU) (Department of History and Archaeology) of the University of Cyprus (UCY). The scientist in charge is Dr. Artemis Georgiou and the contact point at the Host institution is Professor Maria Iacovou.     
 
 The aim of the research project ARIEL is the inter-disciplinary training and academic development of the scientist in charge for the purpose of undertaking innovative research in the highly sensitive historical region of the eastern Mediterranean. The geographical region of focus is defined as the Paphos hydrological zone, situated on the south-west coast of Cyprus. The area largely corresponds to the domain of the polity of Paphos, which flourished as an autonomous centre during the latter 2nd and throughout most of the 1st millennium BCE. The capital of the Paphian polity is identified in the area of the modern-day village of Kouklia. The town became known by the name Palaepaphos (Old Paphos) in the 4th century BCE, when all administrative functions shifted to Nea Paphos. ARIEL's chronological focus is defined as the Bronze Age (ca. 2400-1050 BCE), the period that coincides with the emergence and consolidation of the earliest political forms on the island. The Late Cypriot territorial polities, such as Palaepaphos, attained economic prosperity via the exploitation of the island's cupriferous zones and the trading of the final product with other Mediterranean centres. Palaepaphos' accumulation of wealth is epitomized by the construction of a megalithic Sanctuary at the opening of the 12th century BCE, which endured down to end of Late Antiquity. Despite the richness of archaeological data unearthed, the urban and extra-urban structures characterizing the Paphian polity have only recently been addressed.
 
Building on the accomplishments of the open-ended "Palaepaphos Urban Landscape Project" established in 2006 by Professor Maria Iacovou, the Marie Sklodowska Curie research programme ARIEL was established at the UCY in 2013. Within the framework of ARIEL, the experienced researcher, Dr. Artemis Georgiou, was employed on May 2013, on a four-year contract as a post-doctoral fellow at the Host institution, with the aim of implementing the programme's research objectives. These comprise (1) the illumination of the integral processes that led to the foundation of Palaepaphos at the dawn of the Late Bronze Age (2) the explication of the town's urban and extra-urban forms, particularly with regards to the town's urban fabric and the exploitation of the resources (3) the elucidation of the intra- and extra-island connections of the Paphian polity during the latter part of the 2nd millennium BCE and finally (4) the development of a cultural heritage management strategy that will guarantee the safeguarding of areas of archaeological value, and the education of the wider public for the need to respect archaeological remains. ARIEL is an advanced research programme that brings together traditional archaeological methodologies (i.e. archaeological excavations, typological analyses of material remains etc.), innovative multi-disciplinary approaches (i.e. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), petrography etc.) and cultural heritage management to conduct archaeological research. ARIEL's network of collaborators at the UCY, the Cyprus University of Technology, the Geological Survey Department and the Institute of Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP) Study Centre for east Crete actively engages the fields of Information Technology, geology and the natural sciences to contribute towards the analyses and interpretation of archaeological data. 
 
The research programme "Archaeological Investigations of the Extra-Urban and Urban Landscape in Eastern Mediterranean centres: A case-study at Palaepaphos, Cyprus", known by the acronym ARIEL, is a four-year (2013-2017) Marie Sklodowska Curie Career Integration Grant, hosted at the Archaeological Research Unit (ARU) (Department of History and Archaeology) of the University of Cyprus (UCY). The scientist in charge is Dr. Artemis Georgiou and the contact point at the Host institution is Professor Maria Iacovou.The aim of the research project ARIEL is the inter-disciplinary training and academic development of the scientist in charge for the purpose of undertaking innovative research in the highly sensitive historical region of the eastern Mediterranean. The geographical region of focus is defined as the Paphos hydrological zone, situated on the south-west coast of Cyprus. The area largely corresponds to the domain of the polity of Paphos, which flourished as an autonomous centre during the latter 2nd and throughout most of the 1st millennium BCE. The capital of the Paphian polity is identified in the area of the modern-day village of Kouklia. The town became known by the name Palaepaphos (Old Paphos) after the end of the 4th century BCE, when all administrative functions shifted to Nea Paphos, some 15km to the northwest.
 
Fig. 1 -Map of Cyprus with main Late Bronze Age sites Fig. 2- The Paphos hydrological zone Fig. 3- Ortho-photo map of Kouklia with the Late Bronze Age localities
  
ARIEL's chronological focus is defined as the Bronze Age (ca. 2400-1050 BCE), the period that coincides with the emergence and consolidation of the earliest political forms on the island. The Late Cypriot territorial polities, such as Palaepaphos, attained economic prosperity via the exploitation of the island's cupriferous zones and the trading of the final product with other Mediterranean centres. Palaepaphos' accumulation of wealth is epitomized by the construction of a megalithic Sanctuary at the opening of the 12th century BCE, which endured down to end of Late Antiquity. Despite the richness of archaeological data unearthed, the urban and extra-urban structures characterizing the Paphian polity have only recently been addressed.

Building on the accomplishments of the open-ended "Palaepaphos Urban Landscape Project" established in 2006 by Professor Maria Iacovou, the Marie Sklodowska Curie research programme ARIEL was established at the UCY in 2013. Within the framework of ARIEL, the experienced researcher, Dr. Artemis Georgiou, was employed as a post-doctoral fellow at the Host institution, with the aim of implementing the programme's research objectives. These comprise (1) the illumination of the integral processes that led to the foundation of Palaepaphos at the dawn of the Late Bronze Age (2) the explication of the town's urban and extra-urban forms, particularly with regards to the town's urban fabric and the exploitation of the resources (3) the elucidation of the intra- and extra-island connections of the Paphian polity during the latter part of the 2nd millennium BCE and finally (4) the development of a cultural heritage management strategy that will guarantee the safeguarding of areas of archaeological value, and the education of the wider public for the need to respect archaeological remains.

ARIEL is an advanced research programme that brings together traditional archaeological methodologies (i.e. archaeological excavations, typological analyses of material remains etc.), innovative multi-disciplinary approaches (i.e. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), petrography etc.) and cultural heritage management to conduct archaeological research. ARIEL's network of collaborators at the UCY, the Cyprus University of Technology, the Geological Survey Department and the Institute of Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP) Study Centre for east Crete actively engages the fields of Information Technology, geology and the natural sciences to contribute towards the analyses and interpretation of archaeological data.
 


Research objectives of ARIEL and preliminary results


Objective 1. "The foundation horizon"
Timeframe: between the 3rd and 14th month of the programme

The first objective of ARIEL aims at shedding light on the forceful processes that led to the dramatic transformation of the settlement pattern in the catchment area of Paphos and the socio-economic transformation that urged the nucleation at the coastal site of Palaepaphos. The scope of ARIEL's first objective further encompasses the explication of the character of the initial establishment at Palaepaphos and the development of social complexities and political forms that ensued from the accumulation of heterogeneous populations at the site early in the Late Cypriot period.

Based on the fieldwork research of the previous archaeological expeditions at Palaepaphos, the town's foundation horizon has been assigned to the transitional period that spans the close of the Middle Cypriot period and the dawn of the Late Bronze Age (at ca. 1650-1550 BC). The site presents an impressively long and continuous occupation, from the time of its earliest establishment and, as such, Palaepaphos' foundation horizon is so far exclusively discerned by means of residual pottery fragments and disturbed mortuary remains. The excavations undertaken by PULP at numerous localities of the Palaepaphos nucleus and the ongoing study of the artefactual remains provided substantial new data that decisively contribute towards ARIEL's first objective. Excavations exposed fragmentary, yet critical, evidence that dates to the earliest occupation phase of Palaepaphos, thus illuminating the site's foundation horizon. Excavations between the years 2006 and 2008 at Marcello revealed a limited number of White Painted, Black/Red Slip, Red Polished III-IV ware, and Proto-White Slip fragments. Marcello has also revealed two Red-on-Black sherds, which were evidently imported from the eastern part of the island. The ongoing expeditions at Hadjiabdullah also exposed evidence that dates to the earliest part of the Late Bronze Age. The excavation of the man-made tumulus of Laona, constructed with overlapping strata of red soil, brought in from surrounding areas, as well as marl, revealed ceramic data that are assigned to the earliest establishment of the site, such as Black/Red Slip and Red Polished III-IV sherds, a fragment of a Black Slip Handmade (Reserved Band) jug, three Proto-White Slip fragments and plentiful White Slip I and Base-ring I examples.
 
Fig. 4. Black Slip Reserved band fragment from Laona Fig. 5- Proto White Slip fragment from Hadjiabdullah Fig. 6 - Proto-White Slip fragment from Laona
 
The establishment of the settlement at Palaepaphos early in the Late Bronze Age coincides with the dramatic transformation of the settlement pattern in the wider area of Paphos, evident by the abandonment of the majority of the Middle Cypriot III-Late Cypriot IA settlements. This picture is conveyed mostly by means of surface surveys in western Cyprus. It is thus very important that within the framework of the research programme ARIEL we were able to examine ceramic and other remains from tombs excavated at the sites of Kedares and Anarita by the Department of Antiquities, and Timi-Sentoutzin tou Rafti, excavated by the British Mission in the 1950s. These mortuary contexts do not continue beyond the Late Cypriot IA period, thus confirming the impression gained by surface survey projects.

Following the archaeological excavations undertaken at the site, as well as the ceramological studies and academic research conducted by the fellow, it was ascertained that upon its foundation, Palaepaphos acted as the regional gateway center of the Dhiarizos valley, linking a chain of settlements that extended from the metalliferous zones of the Troodos foothills to the coast, and by extension to long-distance trade. Early Palaepaphos comprised an agglomeration of various communities that nucleated by the coast to partake to the emergent economic order centred on the procurement of copper and its maritime export.
 
Fig. 7- Middle Cypriot III-Late Cypriot IA sites in the Paphos hydrological zone Fig. 8- Late Cypriot IB-IIB sites in the Paphos hydrological zone
 
 
Objective 2. "Urban and extra-urban structures"
Timeframe: between the 14th to the 32nd month of the programme

The second objective of the research programme ARIEL involves the analysis of the urban and extra-urban character of the Paphos catchment area during the latter part of the Late Bronze Age (circa 1400-1050 BCE), when Palaepaphos became a flourishing urban centre in charge of an extended periphery. Specifically, ARIEL aims at characterizing the functional identity of each of the urban nucleus' components (residential, industrial, administrative, sepulchral, religious etc) and reproduce Palaepaphos' idiosyncratic urban settlement fabric. Additionally, ARIEL aspires to explicate the polity's extra-urban structures and define its economic periphery. A major aspiration of the ARIEL programme has been to define the exploitation of the cupriferous resources found at a distance of 25-30km from the urban centre and to delineate the routes extending from the Troodos ridges to Palaepaphos.

Addressing the second objective of ARIEL we have taken into account the new data brought to light by the ongoing targeted excavations undertaken by the University of Cyprus at Kouklia, as well as the fellow's specialized material studies. The preliminary results of this task indicate how the urban centre of the Paphian polity consisted of distinct nuclei that accommodated a variety of functions. It was also possible to infer that Palaepaphos followed the Late Cypriot mortuary custom of establishing tombs within residential areas, judging by the co-existence of mortuary and secular material. Our investigations further determined the idiosyncratic regional character of the Paphian ceramic industry in terms of both the storage and the fineware pottery wares. The excavation of significant quantities of large storage and utilitarian vessels assigned to the Late Bronze Age from Hadjiabdullah and Laona indicate how both areas accommodated residential activities.

During the excavations conducted by PULP on top of the Hadjiabdullah terrace, considerable quantities of Late Bronze Age ceramic material were unearthed, particularly to the south of the large monumental structure excavated in the 1950s by the British Mission. The assemblage consisted of large storage and utilitarian vessels, including numerous short- and long-necked pithoi, some of them massive in size, suggesting that the corpus represents the remains of disturbed settlement strata. The site of Hadjiabdullah has also produced a handle fragment of a small pithos bearing the impressed frieze of a cylinder seal, depicting two fighting bulls and a human figure trying to separate them. This iconography is paralleled in comparable examples from other Late Cypriot sites, and has been linked with the control and the administration of agricultural produce.
 
Fig. 9- The Kouklia village localities
Fig. 10 - White Slip fragments from Hadjiabdullah Fig. 11 - White Painted Wheelmade III bowl fragment from Hadjiabdullah Fig. 12 - Pithos fragment from Hadjiabdullah Fig. 13- Handle fragment of a pithos with cylinder-seal impression from Hadjiabdullah
 
In addition to our investigations at the urban centre of the Paphian polity, we initiated fieldwork research within the Paphos Forest. Our ventures seek to map and record the distribution of massive slag heaps, which correspond to the residue of large-scale copper processing. We anticipate confirming the productivity of the copper deposits within the Paphos region, and additionally explicating the role of the area's copper resources in the development of the politically autonomous and economically flourishing territorial state of Paphos. In order to provide a secure chronological dating, we collected carbon samples that were sent to SUERC Laboratory in Scotland. Within the scope of this task, we collaborate with Dr. Zomenia Zomeni (Senior Geological Officer, Cyprus Department of Geological Survey) who provides her expertise and knowhow on geological cupriferous formations techniques, and Dr. Athos Agapiou (Cyprus University of Technology) who undertakes the topographical surveying, geolocation and volumentric calculation of the slag heaps.
 

Objective 3. "Intra- and extra-insular connections"
Timeframe: between the 33rd to the 46th month of the programme

ARIEL's third objective is twofold: a) Firstly, the project investigates the relations between Palaepaphos and other Cypriot polities of the Late Bronze Age, aiming to contribute to ongoing discussions relating to the island's political organization during the 2nd millennium BCE. b) Secondly, ARIEL examines the contacts of Palaepaphos with other Late Bronze Age polities of the eastern Mediterranean, and explores the site's position within the "international" trading network.

As a specialist in ceramic studies, the fellow has been participating in archaeological expeditions in Greece and Cyprus, thus familiarizing herself with archaeological remains across the island and beyond. This hands-on experience as well as the collaborations she has developed will be indispensable when addressing the programme's third objective that elucidates the connections between Palaepaphos and other polities on the island and the eastern Mediterranean.

Aiming to explicate the local production of Late Cypriot storage vessels and delineate Palaepaphos' connections with other polities of the island, we have initiated the inter-disciplinary study of pithoi unearthed by PULP from the sites of Laona and Mantissa. Together with Dr Priscilla Keswani (Independent Researcher) and Dr Eleni Nodarou (INSTAP Study Centre for East Crete), we completed the typological and macroscopic study of the storage vessels from PULP's excavations at these two sites. The corpus of pithoi was also sampled and will be further analysed by petrographic studies by Dr Nodarou in the laboratory of INSTAP's Study Centre for East Crete. We have also taken samples from various sites within the wider Paphos region, which will be also analysed to determine whether they constitute the sources for the manufacture of the pithoi.
 
Fig. 14 - Eleni Nodarou and Priscilla Keswani at the Kouklia Museum   Fig. 15 - Late Bronze Age pithos fragment from Laona Fig. 16- Late Cypriot pithos fragments from Hadjiabdullah
 
The external connections of the Paphian polity during the Late Bronze Age were explicated by the copious amounts of imported artefacts that were newly brought to light by PULP's excavations at Kouklia. These include fragments of Late Helladic vessels from the Greek mainland, Canaanite Jars from the Levantine coast and a Late Minoan stirrup jar handle of the "oatmeal" fabric, inscribed with a Cypro-Minoan mark.
 
 Fig. 17- Base fragment of a Cananite Jar from Hadjiabdullah Fig. 18-Handle fragment of a Canaanite Jar from Laona   Fig. 19-Fragments of Late Helladic IIIB vessels from Laona
 Fig. 20- Base fragment of a Late Helladic piriform jar from Hadjiabdullah  Fig. 21- Handle fragment of a Late Minoan stirrup jar of oatmeal fabric  Fig. 22- Handle fragment of a Late Minoan stirrup jar of oatmeal fabric


Objective 4. "Cultural heritage management and public outreach" (Work Package 6)
Timeframe: between the 9th to the 48th month

ARIEL's fourth objective entails the development of a heritage management tool, which will enable and encourage the preservation of the natural and archaeological environment in the area of Palaepaphos. The fieldwork expeditions conducted by the University of Cyprus within the framework of ARIEL have expanded the zones of archaeological interest and have thus safeguarded archaeological remains that were otherwise under imminent threat. What is more, the dissemination of the project's results and other public outreach activities aspire to educate the wider public, and especially the local community of Kouklia, on the value of archaeological research and the need to respect cultural heritage.

As well as disseminating the programme's results to the academic community, ARIEL has been aiming to educate the general public for the need to be knowledgeable about the past and the value of cultural heritage. In particular, we encouraged and welcomed visits to the sites where we conduct archaeological excavations by the local community of the Kouklia village, where our team aspires to inform them on the cultural significance of the area, and on the need to respect the region's archaeological remains. Furthermore, the fellow has been an active member of public outreach activities undertaken by the ARU. She has contributed to the organization and running of the event "Science Rocks! - Researcher's Night 2013", coordinated by the Research Promotion Foundation. ARIEL participated with two posters and the experienced researcher was actively involved in the activities organized for the wider public, welcoming adults and children of all ages to ARU's kiosk.
 
ARIEL is grateful to the following people and institutions for their collaboration
· The Rector, Vice-Rectors and the administrative officers of the University of Cyprus
· The Director and administrative staff of the Archaeological Research Unit
· The President and faculty members of the Department of History and Archaeology
· The Director and archaeological officers of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus
· The staff of the Local Museum of Palaepaphos at Kouklia
· Dr Zomenia Zomenia, Senior Officer, Geological Survey Department, Cyprus
· The Geological Survey Department, Cyprus for digital data
· Dr Athos Agapiou, Cyprus Institute of Technology
· Dr Priscilla Keswani, Independent Researcher
· Dr Eleni Nodarou, INSTAP Study centre for East Crete
· Dr Maria Dikomitou-Eliadou, Archaeological Research Unit
  
For the project's period report summary see: http://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/171529_en.html 
 
ARIEL is funded from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions)
of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013/
under REA grant agreement no. 334271.
 
eu FP7-gen-RGB Logo Marie-Curie
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Welcome to PULP

Welcome to the website of the "Palaepaphos Urban Landscape Project" (PULP). PULP was initiated in 2006 with the aim of conducting fieldwork and research in the ancient polity of Paphos (modern Kouklia), an extended archaeological site that is also known as Palaepaphos. This long-term and diachronic research and fieldwork programme is directed by Professor Maria Iacovou. The website presents the annual fieldwork activities of PULP and the results of associated research programmes.