7. Ship Construction in the Ancient Mediterranean: Methods, Driving Factors, and Cross-Cultural Exchange
Francis Martine Allouche, Elena Flavia Castagnino Berlinghieri
This session is dedicated to Honor Frost, her life and her legacy. The conference is held on the anniversary of the centenary of Honor Frost's birth and as such seeks to reflect on her extraordinary life by taking a retrospective view of her work and the specific research themes that she explored, developed and in many cases pioneered, through the course of her career as a maritime archaeologist.
The title of the session outlines it's objective, to explore the development of maritime archaeology through the lens of specific aspects of Honor Frost's research such as harbours, anchors, shipwrecks and coastal change, to see how she inspired subsequent research and researchers, and helped develop the discipline. Her work will also be investigated through the regional contexts in which she worked, exploring specific projects and research angles that she initiated, and reflect on how maritime archaeology has subsequently changed in these areas since those early pioneering days,
The session is thus a celebration of the life of a remarkable person and the contribution she made to scholarship in the development of maritime archaeology in the eastern Mediterranean and beyond.
Timmy Gambin, Bernard Knapp
Seafaring is a mode of travel, a way to traverse maritime space that enables not only the transport of goods and materials but also of people and ideas — communicating and sharing knowledge across the sea and between different lands. The world of ancient Mediterranean seafaring and seafarers was complex, involving a number of different peoples in multiple networks of economic and social exchange. But is it possible to trace the origins and emergence of these ancient trade networks? How did they change through time? Can we discuss at any reasonable level who was involved in prehistoric maritime ventures? Who built the early ships in which maritime trade was conducted, and who captained them? Who sailed them? Which ports and harbours were the most propitious for maritime trade? What other evidence exists for seafaring, fishing, the exploitation of marine resources and related maritime matters? To what extent did early seafarers develop their own rituals and can we speak of 'religions or ideology of maritime mobility'? Are such factors reflected in a 'cultic' landscape and, if so, how were such landscapes perceived from out at sea ('seascapes')?
The papers in this session seek to address these and other, related questions by examining a wide range of material, documentary, iconographic and/or ethnographic evidence, and by re-examining current interpretations. Because the social aspects of seafaring, the relationship different peoples had with the sea, and the whole notion of 'seascapes' are all too seldom discussed in the literature of the Mediterranean, this session aims to devote attention to such factors, including: voyaging, mobility, connectivity, migration, the length and purpose as well as the risk of the journey, the knowledge and experience of navigation, the impact of distance and access to the exotic upon peoples' identities and ideologies, and much more.
Lucy Blue, Julian Whitewright
This session aims to explore the boundaries of maritime space through practises identified via a variety of sources and acquired through a variety of methodologies. It examines the liminality of maritime space and explores maritime practise as transition between land and sea. Besides the more practical, tangible characteristics of maritime space and practise, less obvious, intangible aspects are also explored. Water bodies are explored in their provision of shelter, as points of transition, places on the fringe. Maritime space is viewed from a variety of perspectives, warfare, trade, agriculture and religion, on land and sea. Aspects of ritual and religion, sanctuaries and cult-place are examined in relation to maritime activities and connectivity all integral to an appreciation of maritime cultures, practise, seafaring, and landscape in antiquity.
David Blackman, Kalliopi Baika
The importance of harbours as a base for navigation in the Ancient Mediterranean has been increasingly recognised in recent years. Collaboration with geologists has added a new dimension, showing man's reaction to the challenges of constructing safe havens on often hostile shores. Reviews of the contemporary literary and epigraphic evidence have been combined with the interpretation of new discoveries on the shore and under water.
Following in the tradition of TROPIS, papers are welcomed on new discoveries and new approaches to the evidence which is now being revealed: for example the evidence that harbour studies offer with respect to our understanding of ship construction and maintenance; the distinction between civil and military harbours; harbour networks; the provision of storage and the identification of features such as water supply; evidence of multicultural features; the threats of natural catastrophes and the human reaction to such catastrophes; and the contribution to harbour studies by scientists using new analytical and dating methods.
Dorit Sivan, Helen Farr
This session seeks to bring together papers from across the Mediterranean that address the developing maritime landscape, from various time periods ranging from earliest prehistory onwards. Discussions on cultural maritime landscapes of the past need to be contextualized with an understanding of the physical landscape; new research on coastal geomorphology, sea-level change and the evidence for coastal and submerged archaeology on the coast and the shallow shelf will be brought together to inform us about how this region has changed through time, and how this has influenced cultural activity within it.
Carlo Beltrame, Deborah Cvikel
A shipwreck is a moment frozen in time – capturing physical evidence of the structure of the ship, its cargo and trade route, seamanship and daily life on board. Underwater archaeology and shipwreck recording can yield a wealth of information that is unobtainable through the study of traditional sources, as well as provide details that non-archaeological sources can rarely supply. Our session will be dedicated to underwater excavation and research of shipwrecks and their artefacts.
7. Ship Construction in the Ancient Mediterranean: Methods, Driving Factors, and Cross-Cultural Exchange
Cemal Pulak, Guilia Boetto
Ancient ship construction in the Mediterranean Sea and its surrounding regions is a complex, yet important, subject of study on which significant advancements have been made over the past several decades. A focus on this subject is one of the most important legacies of TROPIS: International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity, which helped propel ancient ship construction as one of the main focuses of nautical archaeology in the Mediterranean. The complexity of studying ancient ship- or boatbuilding is derived from its many distinct components, broadly divided into three categories: developments in ship construction, their driving factors, and the cross-cultural exchange underlying those developments. Development in ship construction encompasses several themes including theoretical, methodological, technological, and design advancements. These changes can take place over short or long periods of time, and can also be examined through regional or geographic specific traditions. Understanding the interdependent economic, political, social and geographical factors that directed developments in ship construction is as equally important as determining the developments themselves. While difficult to quantify, the interplay between cultures cannot be understated in the development of ship construction in the ancient Mediterranean. Following in the tradition of TROPIS, the Mediterranean Maritime Archaeology: Under the Mediterranean conference is calling for papers on ancient ship construction in the Mediterranean and the surrounding regions as it relates to these components.
Dimitris Skarlatos, Jon Henderson
Optical and sonar based approaches are evolving fast in maritime archaeology. This session aims to take stock of current advances allowing a forum for practitioners to come together and discuss the results of their projects, current problems and their hopes for the future. The session will include vision based photogrammetry, data fusion approaches, virtual/ augmented and mixed reality applications, sonar, laser scanning and geophysical work. We are interested in hearing from projects using ANY new types of technology from digital modeling to underwater and aerial platforms to more fully understand maritime sites and present them to the public.
Sturt Manning, Eleni Loizides
This session seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners – both established and early career – working actively in research and applications of conservation and other archaeological science approaches in the discovery, analysis, recording, conservation and preservation of the maritime cultural heritage of the Mediterranean region. Papers that discuss innovative approaches, new ways of approaching materials and problems, reassessments of past work, and solutions to issues of wider Mediterranean relevance are especially welcome.
Athena Trakadas, Nadine Panagiot
Common to most Mediterranean and Near Eastern countries, the recent century has seen massive-scale development projects which are dramatically altering the coastal and near-shore environmental and sociological landscapes of these areas. The deterioration and loss of such intrinsic heritage can negatively impact communities, affecting their cultural identity as well as their potential for socio-economic growth through sustainable eco-tourism, urban renewal, and living standards. Thus, academic archaeologists need more than ever to integrate into their research designs proper management of underwater and maritime-oriented sites and their cultural conservation. Surveys and assessments of maritime landscapes are needed in order to support marine protection and management and to provide for the protection of marine heritage assets, especially those at risk from neglect, decay or other threats.
This session will focus on the presentation of different solutions for the archaeological enhancement of the maritime landscape and the introduction of new methodologies to enable this. The objective is to strengthen the capacity of archaeologists to set basic paradigms to create a better basis for sustainable management decisions of the cultural heritage in order to realize wider social, cultural, economic and environmental benefits.
Laina Swiny, Justin Leidwanger
For millennia, Cyprus served as a strategic nexus for seaborne communication and exchange between the Near East and Mediterranean worlds. At the same time, this connectivity brought the island into the broader orbit of a world that sought to capitalize on its resources. Cyprus' relationship to the sea thus became a defining feature of its landscape and history from antiquity, when its name was synonymous with copper, up to the present. Through diachronic case studies, this session explores how Cyprus' reliance on the sea for resources and connections has left an indelible mark on the island's unique culture.